Doing good maintenance can keep the machining accuracy of the machine tool in the best state and prolong the service life. By adopting the correct startup and commissioning methods for CNC machine tools, in the face of new challenges, it can show a good working state, improve production efficiency and processing results.
CNC machine tool is a kind of high-tech mechatronics equipment. It is very important to adopt the correct way to start-up and debug, which largely determines whether the NC machine tool can exert normal economic benefits and its own service life.
Check before starting: Check the peripheral environment of the machine tool, whether there is any abnormal phenomenon such as water in the electrical box, and whether the oil has deteriorated.
Step-by-step startup: The power voltage of the machine must be detected before the machine is turned on. The power switch of the machine must be turned on after the main power switch has been turned on for about 10 minutes before turning on the power switch of the machine. Too low, turn on the power of the machine tool without abnormal conditions and observe whether there is any abnormal phenomenon or air leakage. Do not perform any action when there is no alarm when the machine is turned on, and let the electrical components be energized for 30min.
Slow-motion: Check for interference, move the machine with the handwheel all the way, pay attention to any abnormalities, and then perform the origin return step.
Machine tool break-in: Automatically run the machine at a slow speed for a long time, and rotate the spindle at a low speed.
1. Fan failure: The fan in the machine tool can cool and cool the core equipment, effectively preventing the equipment from overheating and damage. At the end of the long holiday, the machine fan often “strikes”, which is caused by oil pollution. When the machine stops, the fan inside the machine will also stop. At this time, the oil in the machine tool will flow into the bearings of the fan, causing a short circuit failure of the fan circuit, and the fan will alarm or fail to start when the machine is turned on again. The longer the downtime, the greater this risk.
2. Seal failure: It is necessary to use seals in the hydraulic and pneumatic devices of the machine tool. The purpose is to ensure the tightness of the device and maintain its normal pressure supply. Seals are generally rubber products, which are prone to aging, especially during long vacations, when the machine tool is not running for a long time and the hydraulic pressure does not flow. This will more easily cause the seals to harden, leading to machine tool oil leakage and insufficient pressure provided by hydraulic devices.
3. Oil circuit blockage: The reason for the oil circuit blockage is because the machine tool is stopped for a long time, and the internal dirt in the oil circuit is continuously deposited. Blocking the oil circuit will cause the lubrication system of the machine tool to fail, and the failure of the lubrication system will cause many other serious problems. According to statistics, more than 40% of various common faults of machine tools are related to lubrication faults.
4. Malfunction of the machine’s travel switch: The machine’s travel switch is an important device that limits the mechanical travel range of the machine’s coordinate axis. When the moving part of the machine presses the transmission part of the travel switch, its internal contacts act to switch on, change or break Circuit to meet the control requirements of the circuit. A spring is generally installed inside the travel switch. If the spring is not turned on for a long time, it will cause the spring to deform due to long-term force and can no longer return to its original state.
5. Circuit board failure of driver, power supply, main board, etc .: In CNC machine tools, the role of the circuit board is unnecessary. There are a large number of capacitors on the circuit board. If no power is applied for a long time, these capacitors will age and reduce the capacity, which will cause damage to the machine tool circuit. In addition, the main reason for the failure of the circuit board is that the circuit board will not be at the bottom temperature for a long time, which will cause condensate and cause a short circuit when it is turned on.
6. Machine tool battery failure: Generally, the CNC system is equipped with batteries. It should be noted that the battery mentioned here is not the power supply of the entire equipment, but a device that supplies power to some parts. For example, the system battery is used to save system parameters; the battery for the absolute position encoder is used to remember the zero position. Even when not turned on, the power in these batteries will drain slowly. If the machine is not turned on for a long time, it is easy to cause the battery to run out and cause machine data loss.
1. For machine tools that have been used for a long time, try not to turn off the machine during the long vacation, and you can take an emergency stop.
2. Check the system fan regularly. If it is contaminated with excessive oil, replace or clean it up.
3. Regularly check the hydraulic oil pressure, liquid level and hydraulic impurities in the hydraulic system to ensure smooth oil passage.
4. Regularly clean or lubricate spring-loaded devices such as switches, knife arm springs, and hydraulic valve springs.
5. Clean the drive equipment regularly according to oil contamination.
6. Regularly change the system battery for the machine tool and the desiccant for the electrical cabinet of the machine tool, especially before shutting down on long holidays, this step must not be forgotten.
7. After the long holiday, before restarting, to manually warm up each circuit board of the machine tool, you can use an electric hair dryer to heat each circuit board for a few minutes, just a little temperature.
The degree of automation of CNC machine tools is very high, with the characteristics of high accuracy, high efficiency, and high adaptability, but its high and low operating efficiency, equipment failure rate, and length of service life, etc., also largely depend on the correct use of users and maintenance. A good working environment, good use, and maintainers will not only greatly extend the trouble-free working time and improve productivity, but also reduce the wear of mechanical parts, avoid unnecessary mistakes, and greatly reduce the burden on maintenance personnel.